Ketosis (or keto-adaptation) – Ketosis is a state, achieved through significant reduction of carbohydrate intake (typically to less than 50 grams per day), at which point the body makes a fundamental change from relying on glycogen as its main source of energy to relying on fat as the primary source of energy.  In particular, the brain shifts from being entirely dependent on glucose, to being primarily dependent on beta-hydroxybutyrate – a so-called “ketone body.”  Ketone bodies are chemical structures made by the liver (also somewhat in the kidney) out of fatty acids, primarily.

Whenever one has a discussion about nutritional ketosis, it’s always important to distinguish it from a pathological state referred to as diabetic keto-acidosis (DKA)


Insulin plays the central role in fat metabolism.  When insulin levels are elevated, the body goes into “storage” mode – not just of carbohydrates but also fat.  In other words, elevated levels of insulin turn off the ability of the body to burn fat.  This is why people are insulin resistant are typically overweight.  Insulin resistance (see, below) almost always leads to a tonic state of hyperinsulinemia (high insulin), and hence, always storing fat, rather than breaking it down.

If you ever forget this point, just look at the figure below:

1.High insulin – store fat/don’t break it down

2.Low insulin – break down fat/don’t store it


HIIT – High intensity interval training

These could be sprints, hill repeats or short sharp bursts of high intensity training, with intervals of short recovery. Ideal for improvement of anaerobic threshold and top end speed

Heart rate zones

Heart rate zone are based on a Theoretical calculation of 220 – age. This is a broad based guide and a starting point. If actual max is known then a more accurate measure can be used. Five primary zones are used.

Percentage of Max heart rate

Zone 1 – 50 -60%: Very easy breathing

Zone 2 – 60 70%: Comfortable, easy breathing, light sweating

Zone 3 – 70 – 80%: Light fatigue, easy breathing, moderate sweating

Zone 4 – 80 – 90%: Muscular fatigue, heavy breathing

Zone 5 – 90% – eye popping max : Very exhausting, hard breathing.


Zone calculations: 35 year old

220 – 35 = 185

50%: 185 x 0.5 = 93 bpm

70%: 185 x 0.7 = 130 bpm

90%: 185 x 0.9 = 167 bpm

Marco nutrient splits

Protein = 1.3 – 1.5g protein per kg per day

Carbs = 50g per day until goal weight is achieved

Then 50 – 100g carbs per day based on physical workload and requirements.

Fat = balance of calories required 60 – 75% of calories.